Research, articles, books, blogs and videos on second language acquisition, language learning, bilingual/multilingualism and the importance of culture/language integration to help guide your teaching, learning and programming.

Stephen Krashen on Second Language Acquisition (a "guru" on second language acquisition):  "There is one way and one way only [to acquire language]: Comprehensible input in a low anxiety environment."  While this video is from the 1980s, this research is still just as pertinent now to how language is acquired.  

Stephen Krashen's Theory on Second Language Acquisition:  A great article explaining Stephen Krashen's Theory on Second Language Acquisition in a comprehensible way--SO important for all to know when educating English language learners and looking at instruction and programming--more important to focus on language "acquisition" than language "learning."


Jim Cummins: A world leader in the field of second language acquisition, on BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills) and CALP (Content Academic Language Proficiency)--a very important important distinction in determining language proficiency.


BICS and CALP images: Below are two images of the distinctions between BICS and CALP, followed by an article describing each and a link for teaching implications for mainstream teachers.

Jim Cummins on BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills) and CALP (Content Academic Language Proficiency)

Link to BICS and CALP Implications for Teaching


The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOPModel is a research-based and validated instructional model that has proven effective in addressing the academic needs of English learners throughout the United States. This link (CLICK ON SIOP MODEL LINK ABOVE) explains the siop model and provides resources for implementation, including sample lesson plans integrating varying components of the siop model)

Claude Goldenberg: Unlocking the Research on English Learners


"Learning Words in a Second Language" -- This sample chapter appears in "Teaching Vocabulary to English Language Learners" by Michael F. Graves, Diane August, & Jeannett Mancilla-Martinez. © 2012 Teachers College, Columbia University. A MUST read for all teachers!!

Other Researchers and Blogs to Know in the ELL/Bilingual/Multilingual World!

Michael Graves on Vocabulary:  Michael F. Graves is a former high school English teacher, a Professor Emeritus of Literacy Education at the University of Minnesota, and a member of the Reading Hall of Fame. Michael has authored and coauthored over a dozen books on vocabulary learning and instruction and on comprehension instruction. His recent books include Teaching Vocabulary to English-Language LearnersFostering Comprehension in English Classes, and Reading and Responding in the Middle Grades.  

2 Languages 2 Worlds:  "This blog focuses on the topic ofbilingualism. We invite discussions on all things bilingual: research in bilingual children or adults, learning two languages, language impairment in bilingual populations, funny stuff (cartoons, jokes and so on), and bilingualism in the news are some examples. are a group of researchers who work with bilingual populations across the lifespan. We represent different research interests and work on different questions all pertaining to bilingual populations."

Lily Wong Fillmore --  learnings about sentence deconstruction and reconstruction

Lily Wong Fillmore and Charles Fillmore:  Understanding Language

Virginia Collier -- Second Language Acquisition for School: Academic, cognitive, sociocultural and linguistic processes

Noam Chomsky: Language Acquisition Device and Universal Grammar

Books to Read in the ELL/Bilingual/Multilingual/Multicultural World!

Noa's Ark by David Schwarzer: (A MUST for ALL Teachers!!) "Many monolingual teachers view multiliteracy development—the development of literacy in multiple languages simultaneously—as difficult or even unattainable. With Noa's Ark, David Schwarzer proves otherwise. He reveals that, under the right conditions, multiliteracy can be developed easily and provides some of the tools and strategies to enable monolingual teachers to do so."

Culturally Responsive Readings

Sonia Nieto's Books

Books by Pedro Noguera

Teaching for Change

NY Times: Children's Books that Tackle Race and Ethnicity